AN EXPLANATION OF THE PERFECT NAMES AND ATTRIBUTES OF ALLAH
“He is Allah, the Creator, the Originator, The Fashioner; to Him belong the most beautiful names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth, do declare His praises and glory. And He is the Exalted in Might, The Wise. (Quran 59:24)
“The most beautiful names belong to God: so call on Him by them;…” (7:180)
It is not possible to perfectly translate the names and attributes of Allah from their original Arabic into English. However, here are some fairly close explanations.
^= letter ain of Arabic ‘= letter hamza of Arabic
o Allah, He who has the Godhood which is the power to create the entities.
o The Compassionate, The Beneficent, The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers and the blasphemers in this world and especially for the believers in the hereafter.
o The Merciful, The One who has plenty of mercy for the believers.
o The King, The Sovereign Lord, The One with the complete Dominion, the One Whose Dominion is clear from imperfection.
o The Holy, The One who is pure from any imperfection and clear from children and adversaries.
o The Source of Peace, The One who is free from every imperfection.
o Guardian of Faith, The One who witnessed for Himself that no one is God but Him. And He witnessed for His believers that they are truthful in their belief that no one is God but Him.
o The Protector, The One who witnesses the saying and deeds of His creatures.
o The Mighty, The Strong, The Defeater who is not defeated.
o The Compeller, The One that nothing happens in His Dominion except that which He willed.
o The Majestic, The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures and from resembling them.
o The Creator, The One who brings everything from non-existence to existence.
o The Evolver, The Maker, The Creator who has the Power to turn the entities.
o The Fashioner, The One who forms His creatures in different pictures.
o The Great Forgiver, The Forgiver, The One who forgives the sins of His slaves time and time again.
o The Subduer, The Dominant, The One who has the perfect Power and is not unable over anything.
o The Bestower, The One who is Generous in giving plenty without any return. He is everything that benefits whether Halal or Haram.
o The Sustainer, The Provider.
o The Opener, The Reliever, The Judge, The One who opens for His slaves the closed worldy and religious matters.
o The All-knowing, The Knowledgeable; The One nothing is absent from His knowledge.
o The Constricter, The Retainer, The Withholder, The One who constricts the sustenance by His wisdomand expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy.
o The Expander, The Englarger, The One who constricts the sustenance by His wisdomand expands and widens it with His Generosity and Mercy.
o The Abaser, The One who lowers whoever He willed by His Destruction and raises whoever He willed by His Endowment.
o The Exalter, The Elevator, The One who lowers whoever He willed by His Destruction and raises whoever He willed by His Endowment.
o The Honorer, He gives esteem to whoever He willed, hence there is no one to degrade Him; And He degrades whoever He willed, hence there is no one to give Him esteem.
o The Dishonorer, The Humiliator, He gives esteem to whoever He willed, hence there is no one to degrade Him; And He degrades whoever He willed, hence there is no one to give Him esteem.
o The All-Hearing, The Hearer, The One who Hears all things that are heard by His Eternal Hearing without an ear, instrument or organ.
o The All-Seeing, The One who Sees all things that are seen by His Eternal Seeing without a pupil or any other instrument.
o The Judge, He is the Ruler and His judgment is His Word.
o The Just, The One who is entitled to do what He does.
o The Subtle One, The Gracious, The One who is kind to His slaves and endows upon them.
o The Aware, The One who knows the truth of things.
o The Forebearing, The Clement, The One who delays the punishment for those who deserve it and then He might forgive them.
o The Great One, The Mighty, The One deserving the attributes of Exaltment, Glory, Extolement, and Purity from all imperfection.
o The All-Forgiving, The Forgiving, The One who forgives a lot.
o The Grateful, The Appreciative, The One who gives a lot of reward for a little obedience.
o The Most High, The Sublime, The One who is clear from the attributes of the creatures.
o The Most Great, The Great, The One who is greater than everything in status.
o The Preserver, The Protector, The One who protects whatever and whoever He willed to protect.
o The Maintainer, The Guardian, The Feeder, The Sustainer, The One who has the Power.
o The Reckoner, The One who gives the satisfaction.
o The Sublime One, The Beneficent, The One who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status.
o The Generous One, The Bountiful, The Gracious, The One who is attributed with greatness of Power and Glory of status.
o The Watcher, The Watchful, The One that nothing is absent from Him. Hence it’s meaning is related to the attribute of Knowledge.
o The Responsive, The Hearkener, The One who answers the one in need if he asks Him and rescues the yearner if he calls upon Him.
o The Vast, The All-Embracing, The Knowledgeable.
o The Wise, The Judge of Judges, The One who is correct in His doings.
o The Loving, The One who loves His believing slaves and His believing slaves love Him. His love to His slaves is His Will to be merciful to them and praise them: Hence its meaning is related to the attributes of the Will and Kalam (His attribute with which He orders and forbids and spoke to Muhammad and Musa -peace be upon them- . It is not a sound nor a language nor a letter.).
o The Most Glorious One, The Glorious, The One who is with perfect Power, High Status, Compassion, Generosity and Kindness.
o The Reserrector, The Raiser (from death), The One who resurrects His slaves after death for reward and/or punishment.
o The Witness, The One who nothing is absent from Him.
o The Truth, The True, The One who truly exists.
o The Trustee, The One who gives the satisfaction and is relied upon.
o The Most Strong, The Strong, The One with the complete Power.
o The Firm One, The One with extreme Power which is un-interrupted and He does not get tired.
o The Protecting Friend, The Supporter.
o The Praiseworthy, The praised One who deserves to be praised.
o The Counter, The Reckoner, The One who the count of things are known to him.
o The Originator, The One who started the human being. That is, He created him.
o The Reproducer, The One who brings back the creatures after death.
o The Restorer, The Giver of Life, The One who took out a living human from semen that does not have a soul. He gives life by giving the souls back to the worn out bodies on the resurrection day and He makes the hearts alive by the light of knowledge.
o The Creator of Death, The Destroyer, The One who renders the living dead.
o The Alive, The One attributed with a life that is unlike our life and is not that of a combination of soul, flesh or blood.
o The Self-Subsisting, The One who remains and does not end.
o The Perceiver, The Finder, The Rich who is never poor. Al-Wajd is Richness.
o The Unique, The One, The One without a partner.
o The One.
o The Eternal, The Independent, The Master who is relied upon in matters and reverted to in ones needs.
o The Able, The Capable, The One attributed with Power.
o The Powerful, The Dominant, The One with the perfect Power that nothing is withheld from Him.
o The Expediter, The Promoter, The One who puts things in their right places. He makes ahead what He wills and delays what He wills.
o The Delayer, the Retarder, The One who puts things in their right places. He makes ahead what He wills and delays what He wills.
o The First, The One whose Existence is without a beginning.
o The Last, The One whose Existence is without an end.
o The Manifest, The One that nothing is above Him and nothing is underneath Him, hence He exists without a place. He, The Exalted, His Existence is obvious by proofs and He is clear from the delusions of attributes of bodies.
o The Hidden, The One that nothing is above Him and nothing is underneath Him, hence He exists without a place. He, The Exalted, His Existence is obvious by proofs and He is clear from the delusions of attributes of bodies.
o The Governor, The One who owns things and manages them.
o The Most Exalted, The High Exalted, The One who is clear from the attributes of the creation.
o The Source of All Goodness, The Righteous, The One who is kind to His creatures, who covered them with His sustenance and specified whoever He willed among them by His support, protection, and special mercy.
o The Acceptor of Repentance, The Relenting, The One who grants repentance to whoever He willed among His creatures and accepts his repentance.
o The Avenger, The One who victoriously prevails over His enemies and punishes them for their sins. It may mean the One who destroys them.
o The Pardoner, The Forgiver, The One with wide forgiveness.
o The Compassionate, The One with extreme Mercy. The Mercy of Allah is His will to endow upon whoever He willed among His creatures.
84. Malik Al-Mulk
o The Eternal Owner of Sovereignty, The One who controls the Dominion and gives dominion to whoever He willed.
85. Thul-Jalali wal-Ikram
o The Lord of Majesty and Bounty, The One who deserves to be Exalted and not denied.
o The Equitable, The One who is Just in His judgment.
o The Gatherer, The One who gathers the creatures on a day that there is no doubt about, that is the Day of Judgment.
o The Self-Sufficient, The One who does not need the creation.
o The Enricher, The One who satisfies the necessities of the creatures.
o The Preventer, The Withholder.
o The Distresser, The One who makes harm reach to whoever He willed and benefit to whoever He willed.
o The Propitious, The One who makes harm reach to whoever He willed and benefit to whoever He willed.
o The Light, The One who guides.
o The Guide, The One whom with His Guidance His belivers were guided, and with His Guidance the living beings have been guided to what is beneficial for them and protected from what is harmful to them.
o The Incomparable, The One who created the creation and formed it without any preceding example.
o The Everlasting, The One that the state of non-existence is impossible for Him.
o The Supreme Inheritor, The Heir, The One whose Existence remains.
o The Guide to the Right Path, The One who guides.
o The Patient, The One who does not quickly punish the sinners.
“…There is nothing whatever like unto Him, and He is the One that hears and sees (all things). Qur’an [42:11]
(Arabic transliteration: Laysa Kamithlihi Shayun Wa Huwa As-Sami’ ul-Basir)
Many different versions of the 99 names were found. Some other lists includes Al-Mu’tiy – The Bestower, The Giver and does not have Al-Ahad – The One. Another list did not have Al-Razzaaq -The Sustainer, The Provider but did have Al-Maajid The Noble, The One who is Majid.
Allah (subhanahu wa ta`ala)’s names are not limited to 99, which is a common misconception. There are a couple of evidences, one is the du`aa where one calls upon Allah by the names He (subhanahu wa ta`ala) has kept to Himself (obviously not taking these names since Allah has not revealed them to us); another is the fact that in the narrations of the famous ninety nine names hadith that do contain 99 names, the names are not consistent between narrations (for example, imam al-bayhaqi reports two versions of this hadith, with different 99 names in each). It is suggested by one commentator that the names were not explicitly stated by the rasul (sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam).